United States of America

ABOUT United States of America

The land of opportunities, United States of America emerged as a potent world leader during the World War II. Today its strong presence can be felt in the military, political, economic, scientific, technological and cultural affairs of the world. With the disintegration of the erstwhile Soviet Union, it has become the lone super power of the world. One of the largest democracies in the world, United States is a federal republic and is situated in North America. It is bordered by Mexico on the south, Canada on the north, Atlantic Ocean on the east and the Pacific Ocean on the west. United States comprises of 50 states and one federal district. It also has numerous other dependant territories throughout the world.

It is widely believed that first settlers in North America arrived from northeast Asia between 48,000 BCE and 9,000 BCE. Historians believe that these people crossed the Bering land bridge while hunting. Petroglyphs, burial mounds, and other artifacts found from the different parts of the United States prove this argument. Before the arrival of the Europeans, there were several tribes in the present day United States and their population is estimated around 8 million. Anasazi and the Woodland Indians were the most prominent tribes and they had established large communities. It is believed that at the heights of the civilization some these tribes built sandstone buildings with several floors.

Historians have recorded the occasional visit of the Norse and the Vikings before Christopher Columbus opened the doors for large scale European colonization. Spain was the first European power to colonize areas of the present day United States. They occupied regions around the southwest and Florida during 1500s and 1600s. The Dutch, the British and the French soon followed. The first British settlement was in Virginia in 1607. The Dutch established the forerunners of the present day states of New York and New Jersey during this period. The present day Delaware was established by the Swedes but was later occupied by the Dutch. During this time the famous Pilgrim Fathers arrived and this led to extensive British colonization. The European powers brought with them foreign diseases that the local population had never experienced. This led to large-scale deaths and the wars between the locals and Europeans added to their woes.

European powers soon established their foothold on the continent but soon internal bickering came to the forefront and this led to a series of wars between the different European powers. Britain emerged the strongest and occupied large parts of the present day United States. But this came at a cost; taxes were imposed on the colonists by the British parliament as the crown was finding it hard to raise money for large-scale wars. This and several other reasons led to colonists rebelling against the crown.


The American Revolutionary War against Britain began in 1775. By 1776, around 13 colonies declared its independence from Britain and formed the United States. It was an informal alliance and each had its own sovereignty. Soon these colonies raised a common army called the Continental Army. A political structure was established by the 13 colonies in 1777 making them a confederation. It was ratified in 1781 and this led to the United States becoming the first federal republic. They formed a centralized government with a constitution in 1789. George Washington became the first president under the constitution. This period also saw several wars including the Mexican-American war, the war of 1812 and various other wars with the Indians.

Economic motives and religious freedom often created tension among the members of the newly formed country. Slavery and state right's were the main issues of contention. While the northern states objected slavery, the southern states found it very necessary for agricultural success. The 1860 presidential elections saw Abraham Lincoln coming to power without the support of the southern states. Certain taxes levied by his administration to improve the economic condition of northern states were detested by the southern states. Several other policies led to the southerners believing that Abraham Lincoln was a regional candidate who stood for the improvement of northerners on the behalf of southerners.

In 1860, South Carolina seceded from the union and this was followed by six other southern states. They formed the Confederate States of America and this led to the famous American Civil War. Soon several other states followed suit and joined the Confederate States. During the civil war, proclamations were issued against slavery and by the end of the war in 1865 full emancipation took place. The civil war for once and all settled the issue of the state's right to secede, by making the federal government more powerful than the state government.

This was followed by large-scale industrial development, which promoted an extraordinary wave of immigration to the United States. The industrial growth saw the rise of United States as a powerful nation. World War I saw United States improving its position among the states of the world. The United States of 1920s saw large-scale prosperity in the field of industry but this came at the behest of agriculture. Agriculture produce had no value and this created an unbalanced economy. This unbalance prosperity led to the infamous stock market crash of 1929, which was followed by a period of great depression. The economy made no improvement until World War II. The Japanese attack of Pearl Harbor drew the United States into the World War II. This ultimately ended in the defeat of the imperialist powers and gave the much-needed boost to United States.

The period after the World War II saw the United States and the Soviet Union trying to influence international opinion on different issues. This led to the Cold War which continued till the disintegration of the Soviet Union. The Cold War often reached the brink of large-scale war but was often averted through last minute discussions. The Cold War had its positive effect on the United States as it developed industrially and economically. To compete with the Soviet Union the government encouraged all fields of activity and the greatest development came in the filed of science and space exploration.

Today, United States is the lone superpower and a country in which many people around the globe dream to live in. United Sates stands for democracy and in its support, it interferes in the different parts of the world. The latest being the occupation of Iraq. But these interventions are not welcomed by many and led to the September 11 attack. Natural calamities also took a toll on the nation during the new millennium.

State HASC Conv Population Area(mi.²) Capital Adjective ZIP
Alabama US.AL Ala. 4,447,100 51,705 Montgomery Alabamian 350-369
Alaska US.AK   626,932 591,007 Juneau Alaskan 995-999
Arizona US.AZ Ariz. 5,130,632 114,001 Phoenix Arizonan 850-865
Arkansas US.AR Ark. 2,673,400 53,187 Little Rock Arkansan 716-729
California US.CA Calif. 33,871,648 158,707 Sacramento Californian 900-966
Colorado US.CO Colo. 4,301,261 104,092 Denver Coloradan 800-816
Connecticut US.CT Conn. 3,405,565 5,018 Hartford Nutmegger 060-069
Delaware US.DE Del. 783,600 2,044 Dover Delawarean 197-199
District of Columbia US.DC D.C. 572,059 69 Washington Washingtonian 200-205
Florida US.FL Fla. 15,982,378 58,664 Tallahassee Floridian 320-349
Georgia US.GA Ga. 8,186,453 58,910 Atlanta Georgian 300-319
Hawaii US.HI   1,211,537 6,471 Honolulu Hawaiian 967-968
Idaho US.ID   1,293,953 83,564 Boise Idahoan 832-838
Illinois US.IL Ill. 12,419,293 56,345 Springfield Illinoisan 600-629
Indiana US.IN Ind. 6,080,485 36,185 Indianapolis Hoosier 460-479
Iowa US.IA   2,926,324 56,275 Des Moines Iowan 500-528
Kansas US.KS Kans. 2,688,418 82,277 Topeka Kansan 660-679
Kentucky US.KY Ky. 4,041,769 40,409 Frankfort Kentuckian 400-427
Louisiana US.LA La. 4,468,976 47,752 Baton Rouge Louisianian 700-714
Maine US.ME Me. 1,274,923 33,265 Augusta Downeaster 040-049
Maryland US.MD Md. 5,296,486 10,460 Annapolis Marylander 206-219
Massachusetts US.MA Mass. 6,349,097 8,284 Boston Bay Stater 010-027
Michigan US.MI Mich. 9,938,444 58,527 Lansing Michigander 480-499
Minnesota US.MN Minn. 4,919,479 84,402 Saint Paul Minnesotan 550-567
Mississippi US.MS Miss. 2,844,658 47,689 Jackson Mississippian 386-397
Missouri US.MO Mo. 5,595,211 69,697 Jefferson City Missourian 630-658
Montana US.MT Mont. 902,195 147,047 Helena Montanan 590-599
Nebraska US.NE Nebr. 1,711,263 77,355 Lincoln Nebraskan 680-693
Nevada US.NV Nev. 1,998,257 110,562 Carson City Nevadan 890-898
New Hampshire US.NH N.H. 1,235,786 9,279 Concord New Hampshirite 030-039
New Jersey US.NJ N.J. 8,414,350 7,787 Trenton New Jerseyite 070-089
New Mexico US.NM N.Mex. 1,819,046 121,594 Santa Fe New Mexican 870-884
New York US.NY N.Y. 18,976,457 49,108 Albany New Yorker 100-149
North Carolina US.NC N.C. 8,049,313 52,669 Raleigh North Carolinian 270-289
North Dakota US.ND N.Dak. 642,200 70,702 Bismarck North Dakotan 580-588
Ohio US.OH   11,353,140 41,330 Columbus Ohioan 430-459
Oklahoma US.OK Okla. 3,450,654 69,956 Oklahoma City Oklahoman 730-749
Oregon US.OR Oreg. 3,421,399 97,073 Salem Oregonian 970-979
Pennsylvania US.PA Pa. 12,281,054 45,308 Harrisburg Pennsylvanian 150-196
Rhode Island US.RI R.I. 1,048,319 1,212 Providence Rhode Islander 028-029
South Carolina US.SC S.C. 4,012,012 31,113 Columbia South Carolinian 290-299
South Dakota US.SD S.Dak. 754,844 77,116 Pierre South Dakotan 570-577
Tennessee US.TN Tenn. 5,689,283 42,144 Nashville Tennessean 370-385
Texas US.TX Tex. 20,851,820 266,808 Austin Texan 750-799
Utah US.UT   2,233,169 84,899 Salt Lake City Utahn 840-847
Vermont US.VT Vt. 608,827 9,614 Montpelier Vermonter 050-059
Virginia US.VA Va. 7,078,515 40,767 Richmond Virginian 220-246
Washington US.WA Wash. 5,894,121 68,139 Olympia Washingtonian 980-994
West Virginia US.WV W.Va. 1,808,344 24,231 Charleston West Virginian 247-268
Wisconsin US.WI Wis. 5,363,675 56,153 Madison Wisconsinite 530-549
Wyoming US.WY Wyo. 493,782 97,809 Cheyenne Wyomingite 820-831
51 divisions 281,421,906 3,618,781      
  • HASC: Hierarchical administrative subdivision codes. If periods are replaced by hyphens, these are the same as the
    state codes from ISO standard 3166-2. See note below.
  • Conv: Conventional abbreviations, standard before 1963 and still frequently used. States with short names were spelled
    in full.
  • Population: 2000-04-01 census.
  • Adjective: Adjectival form of the state name.
  • ZIP: Range of three-digit ZIP codes used in each state (although border areas may be served from a different state).

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